Health hazards from chemical substances and ionizing radiations


  • Saman Shahid National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (NUCES), Lahore Pakistan.



, Ionizing Radiation (IR), Annual Average Effective Dose (AAED), Fatal and Non Fatal Cancer Risks, Nickel, Asbestos, Benzene


Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to probe the DNA-damaging effects and hence the risk of cancer can emerge. This small cohort study aimed to evaluate the lifetime fatal cancer risk (FCR) and non-fatal cancer risks (NCR) from IRs and compared them with the risks of other chemical substances (Nickel, Arsenic, Benzene & Asbestos) in nuclear medicine (NM) workers of the INMOL cancer hospital, Lahore. The procedure for the FCR and NCR risk calculation was followed through the guidelines of ICRP and UNSCEAR using probability coefficient. A high-capacity TLD reader was used to calculate whole-body AAED (annual average effective dose) (mSv). All occupational cancer risks were compared with the risks from other chemical substances through the Mann-Whitney U test. The FCRs were decreased from 7.854 10-4 to 3.836 10-4, similarly NCRs were also decreased from 1.57 10-4 to 7.672 10-4 in NM workers from 2015-2019. The fatal/non-fatal cancer risks from IR in INMOL hospital workers were found considerably lower than the risks from other carcinogenic substances. Significant differences existed between the IR fatal/non-fatal cancer risks with the risk values of other chemical substances. The standard risk value (2.80 10-2) of IR dose-effect can be used to compare the lifetime cancer risk from the other chemical substances in the occupational workers who are continuously being exposed to toxic substances occupationally.

Author Biography

Saman Shahid, National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (NUCES), Lahore Pakistan.

Professor (NUCES, FAST Lahore)





How to Cite

Shahid, S. (2022). Health hazards from chemical substances and ionizing radiations. Journal of the Pakistan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 50(1).